Types of pitbulls chart. 1. Staffordshire Bull Terrier Image Credit: k9arteu, ...

The standard size of the American Pit Bull Terrier varies

When it comes to the Pit Bull temperament, they tend to be very playful and energetic when surrounded by the ones they love. Generally speaking, this breed has a strong desire to please their owners, making them very attentive and loyal family companions. All in all, the personality and temperament of the Pit Bull is protective, …However, pitbulls come in different varieties, and it can be challenging to identify which one is right for you. In this article, we will provide you with a detailed chart that explains the different types of pitbulls, their characteristics, and their unique traits. 1. American Pitbull Terrier (APBT)Upload the type of pitbulls application and take advantage of all information and images on it. The application is characterized by containing a special section on the types of hybrid pitbull, and this application serves as a guide to choosing the best type, and it contains huge information about all types of pitbull, such as the type of pitbullPuppy Prices. Expect to spend around $700 for a Pitbull puppy and about $1200 or more for an American Bully puppy. An American Bully puppy is, on average, pricier than a Pitbull pup. The price of a Pitbull from a reputable breeder starts at around $1,000. Compared to $1,200 for a Bully puppy.The American Staffordshire Terrier (AmStaff) is shorter (17”-19”) but stockier and heavier (40-75 pounds) than the APBT. They are very muscular and look bulkier than the American Pit Bull Terrier. The AmStaff was bred to work. They do best if they have a job to do, or if they get plenty of rigorous exercise.About the Breed. From his brawling past, the muscular but agile Staffordshire Bull Terrier retains the traits of courage and tenacity. Happily, good breeding transformed this former gladiator into ...We'll preface this to say that we HIGHLY recommend Bronwen Dickey's book, "Pit Bull: The Battle Over an American Icon," for a fascinating and much more in-depth look at the history and culture of pit bull-type dogs. The history of the Pit Bull can be traced back to the early 1800's in the United Kingdom. Pit Bulls were originally bred from Old English Bulldogs (these dogs are similar ...Rottweilers are quite large and tend to have longer legs than pit bulls. A mix of the two may be large and muscular with long legs. Of course, size will vary depending on the parent dogs. Rottweilers have V-shaped ears, whereas pit bulls tend to have rose ears. A mix could have either or.Some Pitbulls could hit 80 or 90 lbs. Others may reach a healthy adult weight of only 45 pounds or so. This is perfectly normal, so be mindful of appearance, body proportions, and weight. At two months, 15 to 20 pounds is typically a good healthy weight for your pitbull. For a 4-month-old, 35 to 40 pounds is approximately average.The 10 Types of Pitbull Bloodlines. 1. Colby Pitbull. Image Credit: SerinaAnnPhotography, Shutterstock. Colby Pitbulls are one of America's oldest and most popular Pitbull bloodlines. They were the result of arduous work by American breeder John Colby in 1889.Pit bull breeds are stocky and strong with deep chests and blocky heads. They have the strength, courage, and friendliness of a bulldog combined with the smarts and determination of a terrier. Pit ...There were 38 dog bite-related fatalities in the US in 2018. Pit Bull bites statistics show the breed was responsible for 26 fatalities in 2018. Dogs attacked 5,803 postal employees in 2019. It’s estimated that 81% of dog bite injuries don’t require medical care. Pit Bulls have an 86.7% temperament passing rate.standard. Dog ( domestic dog) The American Pit Bull Terrier ( APBT) is a dog breed recognized by the United Kennel Club (UKC) [1] and the American Dog Breeders Association (ADBA), [2] but not the American Kennel Club (AKC). [3] It is a medium-sized, short-haired dog, of a solid build, whose early ancestors came from England. Also called the red nose pitbull, they come in red, brown, fawn, and brindle colors. The color of the nose is reddish-brown. Red. These types of Pitbulls have white accent markings on their heads, probably chest, tail, and feet. Depending on the gene of the dog, they could also have red patterns that appear solid, spotted, or marked.Sapfira/Shutterstock. 1. Border collie. According to The Intelligence of Dogs, which ranks 131 dog breeds in terms of their relative intelligence, the border collie is the smartest dog breed known ...Annex 2 - Identifying Pit Bull Terrier (PBT) types 14. Guidance to Enforcers 1 For further information about identifying Pit Bull Terriers please see Annex 2 which provides some general guidance 2 NB. Where adog or dogs have been set on another animal if an owner of the animal or a bystander is in fear of their own safety this may beView national dog bite fatality statistics, reports and trends by DogsBite.org. U.S. Dog Bite Fatalities: Breeds of Dogs Involved, Age Groups and Other Factors Over a 13-Year Period (2005 to 2017) 2019 Dog Bite Fatality Statistics. 2018 Dog Bite Fatality Statistics.Millers Forge Nail Clipper. For small to medium paws, the Millers Forge Nail Clippers have sharp blades to slice through nails leaving a clean cut. The plier-style tool has plastic-coated handles to offer control and precision, reducing the chances of cracking a nail or leaving a rough edge.A Comprehensive Guide to Dog Breeds. There are over 300 Dog Breeds recognized worldwide, with most breeds falling into one of 7 breed groups. Learn about the characteristics and behaviors of your dog's breed and group. 10 of the Largest Dog Breeds. 9 Service Dog Breeds That Can Serve as the Ultimate Helpers. 4 Dog Breeds With …One of the most well-known examples of a XXL pit bull is Hulk, the largest pit bull in the world. Hulk is a XXL pit bull owned by Dark Dynasty K9 kennel owners Marlon and Lisa Grennan. More than three times larger than a regular-sized American pit bull dog, Hulk weighs in at 175 pounds. His head is a whopping 28 inches wide, and his jaws are ...A super sweet mixed breed, the Pit Chow is the result of breeding a Pitbull with a Chow Chow. They can come in all shapes and colors and can grow to be 21 inches in height at the shoulder and clock in at 70 pounds. This type of dog has a long lifespan, ranging from 10 to 15 years. Your Pit Chow can inherit personality traits from either of ...The Pitbull growth chart is there to give you a general idea of the dog's future weight. But, not every puppy fits in these calculations. ... Pitbulls, even types within the breed, have different growth curves, and thus, different adult dog weights and heights. 2. Can Pitbulls weigh 100 pounds?Here we explore differences in behavior among the 30 most popular dog breeds registered with the American Kennel Club based on owner responses to a standardized and validated behavioral ...The good news is the numbers have consistently fallen in the past two years, meaning that dog safety precautions are increasing. The report includes the top 20 cities with the most attacks. Number one is Houston, TX, with 85 annual mail carrier attacks. In the second place, Los Angeles with 74 annual attacks in 2019.In the United States the American Staffordshire Terrier has been bred for a stable temperament and adapted for hunting rodents and other vermin, for pursuing game, and for farm work, taking advantage of the breed's strength and courage.Over time, larger dogs became the norm. American Staffordshire Terriers reached a peak of popularity in the first half of the 20th century; "Pete the Pup ...Go to source. 2. Check for a broad, wedge-shaped head and thick neck. The dog's head will probably look wide and slightly rounded from the front, but look like a wedge from the side due to a long muzzle and low forehead. This head shape, like many characteristics, comes from pitbull-type dogs' fighting heritage. [4]Oct 3, 2023 · The Pitbull’s coat features different colors: black, white, fawn, red, brown, and many more shades. Depending on the animal, the color is not always structured. For example, some dogs sport a Red Nose, a Black Nose, or even a Blue Nose. In fact, Pitbulls’ colors and coat patterns are as diverse as the rainbow. General Appearance. The American Pit Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, solidly built, short-coated dog with smooth, well-defined musculature. This breed is both powerful and athletic. The body is just slightly longer than tall, but bitches may be somewhat longer in body than dogs. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ...Hemangiosarcoma. Hemangiosarcoma is a type of cancer that affects the lining of blood vessels in the body. It commonly occurs in the spleen, heart, or liver. It can also appear on the skin. This aggressive cancer may not be detected until the dog experiences complications from tumor rupture or growth.The following infographic shows that the Pit Bull is still responsible for the most fatal attacks in the U.S. by far, killing 284 people over that 13-year period - 66 percent of total fatalities ...Dec 26, 2021 · The main reason your pitbull is so small is simply genetics. The size and growth rate of your pitbull will mostly depend on its type, gender, and age. Another reason is the dog’s diet as Pitbulls typically need to eat balanced and nutrient-filled meals in order to grow to their full size. Keep reading to learn more about the different types ... Fatal attacks by these breeds of dogs (1979-1998): Pit Bulls: 66. Rottweilers: 39. German Shepherds: 17. Chows: 8. When we divide the population by the fatal attacks, we can get a percentage based on the dogs probability of fatally attacking a human. Pit Bulls: .00125 %.Because of the Pitbull's reputation for being aggressive dogs, it's easy to attribute this behavior to the Pointer Pitbull mix. However, in 2011, the American Temperament Test Society (ATTS) reported that American Pit Bull Terriers belong to the top five most stable breeds. They got an 87.4% passing rate in the ATTS breed statistics.. With this information about Pitbulls coupled with the ...Jul 14, 2023 · The Need-To-Know Stuff: Types of Pit Bulls. Four dog breeds are commonly lumped together and called “pit bulls.”. This includes the American pit bull terrier, the American Staffordshire bull terrier, the Staffordshire bull terrier, and the American bulldog. A wider umbrella term — “bully breed” — is applied to these breeds and about ... As you approach retirement age, it is important to understand how Medicare works and how it affects your retirement plans. One of the most important tools for understanding Medicare is the Medicare Retirement Age Chart.When it comes to mailing letters and packages, it is important to know how much postage you need in order to ensure that your mail reaches its destination. One of the best ways to calculate the cost of postage is by using a postage stamp ch...A Pareto chart is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph. The bars represent individual values (sorted in descending order), and the line indicates the cumulative total. This chart is named after Vilfredo Pareto, who observed the …1. Colby Pitbull Bloodlines. Colby Pitbull – Pitbull Bloodlines. Colby Pitbull bloodline is one of the most popular Pitbull bloodlines that have been used for a lot of Pitbull breeding. Colby Pitbull’s bloodline was developed by a Pitbull breeder named Colby Piatkowski.Apr 25, 2023 · There are only three primary Pitbull breeds today: the American Pit Bull Terrier (Pittie or Pit), the American Staffordshire Terrier, and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The Blue Nose Pit is a type of American Pit Bull Terrier. Like the Red Nose Pit Bull, it got its name from its distinct coloring. Blue Nose Pitties have a blue-gray hue to ... sobakabarobaka / Getty Images The American bully is a relatively new breed that was first developed in the '80s and '90s. Recognized by the United Kennel Club in 2013 but not yet by the American Kennel Club, the breed came from the American pit bull terrier and other bulldog-type breeds.1. Black Pitbull. Black Pitbulls are one of the most common Pitbull colors out there. An all-black coat with a black nose and paw pads makes these pitties look like the color of midnight. Black is an extremely common coat color that is recognized in all four of the breeds. No health issues are associated with this coat.The most recent dog bite statistics by breed that were responsible for a dog bite-related fatality include the following: Pit Bulls and Rottweilers have received an unfavorable reputation; combining the figures for both dogs adds up to 76% of fatal dog attacks. However, most breeds on the list have stronger bite forces than other dogs.It takes a special type of person to train a Pitbull right, but they will have a perfect companion for life. Weight. There is a major dispute as to the proper weight for Pitbulls. The vast majority of breeders believe that Pitbulls should weigh between 35 and 60 pounds. As for their height, they should stand from 18 to 24 inches tall at the ...The Bull Terrier stands out among other Pitbull breeds due to its distinctive long, egg-shaped head and triangular eyes. They can weigh up to 77 pounds and typically reach a height of up to 22 inches. Bull Terriers are intelligent, independent, and have high levels of energy. They require daily exercise, playtime, and mental stimulation ranging ...Fatal attacks by these breeds of dogs (1979-1998): Pit Bulls: 66. Rottweilers: 39. German Shepherds: 17. Chows: 8. When we divide the population by the fatal attacks, we can get a percentage based on the dogs probability of fatally attacking a human. Pit Bulls: .00125 %.5. Myth: Pit Bulls Have a High Pain Tolerance (Source: Animal Farm Foundation) The truth is, all dogs feel pain, and Pit Bulls are no different.The breed has nothing to do with it. Fact: Pit Bulls don't have locking jaws. Their skull is similar to other canines and has no unique locking mechanism.Ears. The ears of an American Pit Bull Terrier are small to medium-sized, set high on their head and may be cropped or not. 2. Eyes. Their eyes are medium in size, round and set well apart. All colors are desirable by breeders except blue. 3. Nose. Their nose is flat with wide nostrils and may be red, blue or black.A gator mouth pitbull is a breed of pitbull that hails from a specific bloodline. It is believed that this dog line was originally bred for its strong ability to fight. Some people still breed this line as fighting dogs.How Many Types of Pitbulls are There? The term “Pitbull” is often used to refer to several dog breeds that share similar physical traits and origins . However, …Graphs are often used to show large or complex data sets or long-term data trends. Charts can be numeric, in which case they may also be graphs. Line charts, bar charts, and pie charts are good examples of this. This Venn diagram explores in more detail the difference between graphs and charts:3. Boxer: This breed is good with children and other animals due to its gentle nature and a high tolerance for others. It is said that he was developed for field sports and to fetch. This breed is known for being loyal and protective of its owner. They have moderate to high energy levels and require human contact.The Pit Bull Personality: Loyal Companions. Ask a Pit Bull owner to sum up the personality of these doe-eyed hunks of muscle and one word will come up again and again: stubborn. When a Pit Bull is determined to get from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’, doors, door frames, baby gates, and other barriers can become collateral damage over time.A full-blooded Pitbull's price would depend on the actual breed and the quality of the dog. However, the cost often ranges between $500 and $5,000 . Getting a Pitbull from a champion lineage may even reach as high as $10,000 to $55,000. However, getting a Pitbull does not necessarily need to break the bank. In fact, Pitbulls are often handed ...Fish. Salmon, shrimp, and tuna are all safe for dogs to eat and are good sources of protein. Salmon and tuna are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which may have health benefits for dogs, such ...Aug 3, 2023 · They also have extremely glossy coats and are among the most beautiful bloodlines you’ll find anywhere. 7. Old Family Red Nose Pitbull. Image Credit: Joe Stoltz, Pixabay. The “Old Family” in this line’s title is no joke—these dogs date back to the mid-19 th century in Ireland. The “Red Nose” part isn’t a joke either. They also have extremely glossy coats and are among the most beautiful bloodlines you'll find anywhere. 7. Old Family Red Nose Pitbull. Image Credit: Joe Stoltz, Pixabay. The "Old Family" in this line's title is no joke—these dogs date back to the mid-19 th century in Ireland. The "Red Nose" part isn't a joke either.Aug 30, 2022 · Similar to the term “hound” or “retriever,” pit bull refers to a type of dog breed. And within this category type, there are four distinct pedigree breeds: American Pit Bull Terrier. American Staffordshire Terrier. Staffordshire Bull Terrier. American Bulldog. A census was taken in 2021 of dog attacks by breed from previous years. The top 5 dog breeds with the most bite attacks in the United States are listed below. 1. Pit Bull. Attacks: 3,397. Deaths: 295. Pit bulls have a high reputation for being one of the most aggressive breeds, backed by statistics.Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Recognized as a breed by both the American Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is the smallest of the standard Pitbull types. This dog stands between 14 and 16 inches and weighs between 24 and 38 pounds. They appear primarily in the colors of black, blue, brown, and white.Summary What is a Pit Bull? This American pit bull terrier is a purebred dog. They are a type of dog (not a specific breed), which is often used to classify a number of purebred and mixed breed dogs. Within this type of dog there are a number of pit bull breeds including: Staffordshire bull terrier American pit bull terrier (APBT) American bulldog5. The Boxer. The boxer is one of the most popular breeds of dog in the United States. She is a working dog and a hunter, as well as an excellent guard dog. Tall and proud, she can weigh up to 80 pounds and is often recognized by her fawn-colored coat. However, she can be white, brindle, or multi-colored.The 10 Types of Pitbull Bloodlines. 1. Colby Pitbull. Image Credit: SerinaAnnPhotography, Shutterstock. Colby Pitbulls are one of America’s oldest and most popular Pitbull bloodlines. They were the …The pit bull breed is mainly composed of the following dog breeds. American Pitbull Terrier. American Staffordshire Terrier. Staffordshire Bull Terrier. American Bulldog. Bull Terrier. 1. American Pit bull Terrier (APBT) The link to this photo or video may be broken, or the post may have been removed.It's just that there are officially four pitbull types, at least according to the American standards. How the Pit Bull Confusion Started According to a study published by the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, animal shelter workers frequently mislabel dogs as "pit bulls."Developed from the Bull and Terrier types dogs, the American Pit Bull Terrier can be traced back to the early 1800s in what is now known as the United Kingdom. They were bred as an all-around farm dog, working the farms as a cattle/hog dog. Some chose to turn their talents into the sport of pit-fighting. The breed's tenacity and accompanying ...4. American Staffordshire Terrier. The American Staffordshire Terrier is a breed of dog that was developed in the United States. It is a cross between the English Staffordshire Bull Terrier and the American Pit Bull Terrier. The American Staffordshire Terrier is a muscular, medium-sized dog that has a short, smooth coat.The following infographic shows that the Pit Bull is still responsible for the most fatal attacks in the U.S. by far, killing 284 people over that 13-year period - 66 percent of total fatalities ...12th electronic survey. The pit bull population data is only one small part of the wealth of information emerging from the ninth annual ANIMALS 24-7 peak-of-puppy-season electronic survey of the U.S. dog population, and our 12th overall, following similar surveys covering the time frames 1900-1950, 1970-1979, and 1980-1989. (Scroll to the bottom for the complete chart of "Most popular dog ...View national dog bite fatality statistics, reports and trends by DogsBite.org. U.S. Dog Bite Fatalities: Breeds of Dogs Involved, Age Groups and Other Factors Over a 13-Year Period (2005 to 2017) 2019 Dog Bite Fatality Statistics. 2018 Dog Bite Fatality Statistics.Types of Brindle Pitbulls. Since Brindle Pitbulls come in many varieties, you may be curious about what other types are out there. Well, we’ve got you covered. Meet Lotus, a rescued Blue Nose Brindle Pittie – Source: @lotusandkoda / IG. The Blue Nose Brindle Pitbull lives up to the name with a brindle, blue fawn, and gray hue to their coat ...Aug 3, 2023 · They also have extremely glossy coats and are among the most beautiful bloodlines you’ll find anywhere. 7. Old Family Red Nose Pitbull. Image Credit: Joe Stoltz, Pixabay. The “Old Family” in this line’s title is no joke—these dogs date back to the mid-19 th century in Ireland. The “Red Nose” part isn’t a joke either. Their courage is proverbial. A responsibly bred, well-socialized AmStaff is a loyal, trustworthy friend to the end. AmStaffs are stocky, muscular bull-type terriers standing 17 to 19 inches at the ...Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Recognized as a breed by both the American Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is the smallest of the standard Pitbull types. This dog stands between 14 and 16 inches and weighs between 24 and 38 pounds. They appear primarily in the colors of black, blue, brown, and white.3. Boxer: This breed is good with children and other animals due to its gentle nature and a high tolerance for others. It is said that he was developed for field sports and to fetch. This breed is known for being loyal and protective of its owner. They have moderate to high energy levels and require human contact.Like the American Bulldog, the American Pit Bull Terrier has two types based on coat color. The Blue Nose Pitbull has a nose and coat that ranges from gray to charcoal. On the other hand, the Red Nose Pitbull has a pink nose and fur that is copper. ... (Feeding Chart & Guide) March 27, 2023. Popular Posts. American Bully XL: Breed Info ...Different Types of Pit Bull ... Pit Bull puppy weight chart Male American Pit Bull Terrier. Male Pit Bull Age Male Pit Bull Weight; 1 Month: 9.2 lb - 4.2 kg:The red nose pitbull is a result of close inbreeding of the 'Old Family' strain of Pitbulls in the mid-1800s. Red Nose Pitbull Bloodline. The Red Nose Pitbull breed is said to be a descendant of the bloodline: Old family red nose" (OFRN) of Ireland, mainly in the counties of Kerry and Cork.. While it is also hard to trace the exact evolution of the red-nose trait, their breeding was kept ...Types of PITBULL Breeds that are Popular Today | Pitbull Types 2021#typesofpitbullSubscribe for daily update https://goo.gl/Ewpr5QContact : [email protected] is a Cuban-American rapper from Miami, Florida. He released his debut album, M.I.A.M.I. in 2004, and has since released a number of studio albums, compilation albums and soundtracks, as wel…A Merle Bully is an American Bully with the merle gene that gives the dog's coat a unique pattern of mottled colored patches in a solid or piebald coat. Merle Bullies have three main types: Blue, Red, and Cryptic. Merle Bullies are not recognized by the AKC and have many health problems. Merle Bullies are truly unique dogs in so many ways ...Rotten Pit. Or simply just another Pitbull mix dog. A Rottweiler Pitbull mix, most commonly referred to as a Pitweiler, is a very strong, large-sized, mixed-breed dog that would make a good guard dog, or family watch dog. Pitweilers come in a variety of coat colors, depending on the parent mix, but they are all likely to inherit a short coat ...Most Miniature Pitbulls only grow to be 12 to 16 inches tall. If they are any taller than 16 inches (which is the max) then they would not be considered "miniature" Pitbulls. Finally, a standard weight for a Pocket Pitbull would fall between 35 pounds and 60 pounds. Your veterinarian will advise you if your pooch is not reaching the average ...Depending on the type of research you look at you can find that the average dog bite force ranges somewhere around 230-250 psi. However, this 2020 research used “a three-dimensional biomechanical model based on dissection data to estimate the bite force of 47 dogs of various breeds at several bite points and gape angles.”Different Types Of Pitbulls American Pitbull Terrier. The American Pitbull Terrier is the most common Pitbull breed and is normally the breed... Red Nose Pitbull Terrier. The Red Nose Pitbull Terrier is simply a variation of …mostlydogs "Pitbull" isn't a word and there aren't "types" of pit bulls. There is the American Pit Bull Terrier and that's it. There is the American Pit Bull Terrier and that's it. AmStaffs are a long seperated show line now considered their own breed, the Staffie is a now-distant English cousin, and the American Bully was never a pit-fighting dog.A pit bull is a type of dog, just as retrievers, shepherds, and spaniels describe types of dogs. The term "pit bull" has no single, solid, scientific definition. Your idea of a "pit bull" is a personal and individual idea; no one else's idea of a pit bull will be exactly the same. When I was a novice pit bull owner, I thought I knew ...Pitbull-type dogs are outstanding canine citizens and loving companions in millions of U.S. households. They consistently achieve excellent temperament scores, are successful as service dogs , therapy dogs , K9 police dogs, and as family pets . Learn about the history of pitbull-type dogs, the "pit bull" name, and each of the unique breeds that ...Pitbulls are prone to chronic ear infections because of their allergies, not ear shape. Clipping pitbull ears can make infections worse, not better. The pinna is important to keeping debris/water out of a dog’s inner ear. Your dog will have no protection of their ear canal to keep dirt, bugs, and water out.. A Blue Nose Pitbull puppy can cost around $1,0004. taurist • 2 mo. ago. Bullies are pit bulls but they're not APB The different types of Pit Bulls are all attractive and lovable dogs. Their breeders and owners have spent the last few decades fighting for the rights of this breed because of the stigma that surrounds it. Many states and countries still believe that the Pit Bull is a danger to society despite it being a gentle and friendly family companion.Pitbulls are a breed of dog that are often confused with other breeds. There are several types of Pitbulls and each one has its own characteristics. This article will help you understand more about these dogs by giving you a chart of the breeds of Pitbulls. American Pit Bull Terrier. Pit bulls are known for their strength and agility. A brindle Pitbull is a coat color variation of the Pitbul Spike. Spike is a unique pitbull in that it's a cross between a pitbull and a Dalmatian. It tends to be whiter in color, with most of its coat reflecting that of a Dalmatian's pattern. They tend to be the same size in stature, so a Spike pitbull will weigh around 40 to 70 pounds and stand 22 to 24 inches tall.The four faces of different types of Pitbulls – Image source. There are 4 different breeds in total: the American Pitbull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. Under the American Pitbull Terrier, there are 2 subtypes: the Rednose and Bluenose Pitbull. Eumelanin is responsible for black and brown ...

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